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Venezuelan crunch time

Venezuela faces steep bond payments before the end of the year. It is looking to Russia to help keep it from default

27 October will be a tense day for Venezuela's cash-strapped state oil company PdV and its bondholders. The company owes $0.84bn in principal payments on its PDVSA 2020 bond on the day. Unlike some other PdV debt, the 2020 bond does not have a provision for a grace period, so if PdV can't come up with the cash on the day, or there is a hiccup making the transfer to its payment agent Delaware Trust Company, PdV would be in default and one of the world's top oil producers would be plunged into a highly complex legal battle with its bondholders that would likely seize up its international business. The 27 October transaction is one of a string of payments PdV will have to make to bondholders to

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